CLINICAL HYPNOSIS & SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
100 PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
David Puchol Esparza
Licensed Psychologist & Clinical Hypnotherapist
“Hypnosis is not a type of therapy, like psychoanalysis or behavior therapy. Instead, it is a procedure that can be used to facilitate therapy. It is the opinion of the authors of this statement that because it is not a treatment in and of itself, training in hypnosis is not sufficient for the conduct of therapy; rather, clinical hypnosis should be used only by properly trained and credentialed health care professionals (e.g. licensed clinical psychologists), who have also been trained in the clinical use of hypnosis and are working within the areas of their professional expertise.
Hypnosis has been used in the treatment of pain, depression, anxiety, stress, habit disorders, and many other psychological and medical problems. However, it may not be useful for all psychological problems or for all patients or clients. Again, it is the opinion of the authors of this statement that the decision to use hypnosis as an adjunct to treatment can only be made in consultation with a qualified health care provider who has been trained in the use and limitations of clinical hypnosis.”
- Information on Hypnosis -
Executive Committee of the American Psychological Association
Division of Psychological Hypnosis.
Hypnosis is one of the oldest methods of treating diseases and dates back to ancient Egypt. Under numerous labels, Hypnosis has been practiced in different cultures since time immemorial. For example, the Ebers Papers, one of the oldest human writings known, dated 300 BC, describes the therapeutic use of Hypnosis in the effective treatment of several illnesses. For over 200 years, since the recognized beginnings of Clinical Hypnosis in the work of Anton Mesmer, under the name of ‘Animal Magnetism’, there has been a continuing ‘controversy’ about its scientific basis and applications in medicine or psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy has probably been praised and decried more than any other medical or therapeutic treatment. When average people and many mental health professionals think about Hypnosis a lot of misconceptions, myths, commonplaces, false ideas and tales cross their minds. There are many prejudices about Hypnosis that have been impressed on scientific community by books, movies and television shows. Hypnosis, therefore, has been associated in the minds of many people with control and the super natural. Few therapeutic procedures are less understood and more plagued by misconceptions and misunderstandings than Hypnotherapy. To quote Dave Elman, “People have invested Hypnosis with a lot of false ideas. It is perhaps one of the most beautiful states that God has made possible to mankind and this beautiful state contains nature’s own anesthesia which God makes available to everyone of us. When you’re taught to look at hypnosis properly, you see it as a very beautiful and wonderful thing.” Although Clinical Hypnosis is not a ‘panacea’, it has helped thousands of people in many areas of their lives. Unfortunately, because of fears and misconceptions, many people and mental health professionals are ‘reluctant’ to contemplate Hypnotherapy as an effective therapeutic tool in mental health care.
The essence of the psychotherapeutic process is personal growth and transformation. As a science and an art dedicated to eliminate mental disorders and devoted to personal change and development, contemporary psychotherapy brings together the findings and resources of many disciplines, approaches, and theoric models. Today, there is a strong tendency to integrate different therapeutic modalities, strategies and clinical tools in the promise of achieving more dramatic psychotherapeutic changes. Comprehensive or global approaches are likely to be considered, based on the premise that one therapeutic tool need not displace another. It is not uncommon, for example, to see a client engaged in Cognitive-Behavioral psychotherapy also be concomitantly treated by hypnotic strategies or even psychiatric medications. Although Hypnotherapy is not a treatment per se, but the framework in which treatment can more effectively be carried out. Probably, the ‘future’ of Clinical Hypnosis will likely witness studies of its usefulness as an extraordinary ‘facilitator’ to other psychotherapeutic models, especially the cognitive-behavioral model. As an adjunct to psychotherapy, Hypnosis can help clients enter a trance state in order to achieve more easily numerous psychotherapeutic outcomes and stimulate personal growth.
Hypnotherapy is the art and science of using specific communication patterns (verbal and non-verbal) to assist another person in entering an altered state of consciousness in order to facilitate or promote a personal change. The practice of Hypnotherapy has no rigid formula. Hypnosis, as an effective psychotherapeutic tool, may be used in the early (investigative-diagnostic), middle (working through), or final (transition-termination) stages of the psychotherapeutic process. The results and potential value of Clinical Hypnosis is the consequence of the combination of the following key factors:
1) The client’s personality and character (beliefs, thinking styles, values...)
2) The hypnotist’s skills / experience with Clinical Hypnosis and psychotherapy.
3) The type of relationship (rapport) between the client and the professional.
4) The type of induction procedures and suggestions that are used with the client
5) The context where the ‘hypnotic interaction’ is occurring.
While techniques, strategies and procedures for inducing trance states and forming specific suggestions can be easily learned, other key skills and knowledge are necessary in order to use Clinical Hypnosis as a safe and effective therapeutic tool. According to the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Clinical Hypnosis cannot, and should not, stand alone as the unique psychological intervention for any disorder. Anyone who can read an Hypnotic script with some degree of expression can learn how to ‘hypnotize’ someone. However, a client with a mental disorder should consult a qualified mental health professional for an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. Only a mental health professional is in the best position to decide with the patient whether Hypnosis is indicated and, if it is, how it might be incorporated into the psychotherapeutic process.
The following is a basic selection of 100 psychotherapeutic applications of Clinical Hypnosis based on recent scientific research and selected bibliography...
II.-HYPNOSIS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
001.-Free from Fears: Hypnotherapeutic Strategies (Seagrave & Covington, 1987).
002.-Brief Therapy Approaches to Treating Anxiety (Yapko, 1989).
003.-The Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Moore & Burrows, 1991).
004.-Hypnosis with Anxiety Disorders (Hart, 1992).
005.-Relaxation and Hypnosis in Reducing Anxiety and Stress (Sapp, 1992).
006.-Phobias and Intense Fears: Hypnotic Strategies (Crawford & Barabasz, 1993).
007.-Acute Stress Disorder and Dissociation (Spiegel, 1994).
008.-Hypnosis and CBT for Public Speaking Anxiety (Schoenberger et al., 1997).
009.-Hypnosis for Posttraumatic Conditions (Cardena et al., 2002).
010.-Hypnosis in the Management of Stress Reactions (Gravitz & Page, 2002).
III.-HYPNOSIS FOR MOOD DISORDERS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
011.-Affective Disorders and Clinical Hypnosis (Burrows, 1980).
012.-Hypnosis in the Treatment of Depression (Detito & Baer, 1986).
013.-Hypnotherapy and Depression as a Dissociative State (Alladin, 1992).
014.-Clinical Hypnosis and the Treatment of Depression (Yapko, 1992).
015.-Treatment of Depression with Medical Hypnoanalysis (Mow, 1994).
016.-Hypnosis for Overcoming Depression (Hadley, 1997).
017.-Treating Symptoms and Risk Factors of Major Depression (Yapko, 2001)
018.-Using Hypnosis to Treat Depression (Hensel et al., 2001).
019.-Percepual Reconstruction in the Treatment of Inordinate Grief (Gravitz, 2001).
020.-Treating Depression with Hypnosis (Yapko, 2001).
IV.-HYPNOSIS FOR MIND/BODY HEALING: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
021.-Healing in Hypnosis: The Ericksonian Approach (Erickson, 1983).
022.-Mind-Body Communication in Hypnosis (Erickson, 1986).
023.-Hypnosis and Behavioral Medicine (Brown & Fromm, 1987).
024.-Mind-Body Therapy (Rossi & Cheek, 1988).
025.-The Complete Mind/Body Guide (Chopra, 1991).
026.-The Healing Journey (Simonton et al., 1992).
027.-The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing (Rossi, 1993).
028.-A Psychosomatic Medicine Research Clinic (Heap et al., 1994).
029.-Physically Focused Hypnotherapy: A Guide to Medical Hypnosis (Breuer, 2000).
030.-A Review of the Impact of Hypnosis on Aspects of Health (Gruzelier, 2002).
V.-HYPNOSIS FOR PAIN MANAGEMENT: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
031.-Hypnosis for Spinal Injuries Pain Relief (Alden, 1993).
032.-Hypnosis for Chronic Pain: A Critical Review (Large, 1994).
033.-Hypnotic Analgesia (Spanos et al., 1994).
034.-Hypnotic Pain Control: Theoretical and Practical Issues (Alden & Heap, 1998).
035.-Pain Management Psychotherapy: A Practical Guide (Eimer & Freeman, 1998).
036.-Management of Cancer, Surgical Disease and Chronic Pain (Lynch, 1999)
037.-Hypnosedation: A Valuable Alternative (Faymonville et al., 1999).
038.-Applications of Hypnosis for Brief and Efficient Pain Management (Eimer, 2000).
039.-Hypnosis in the Conquest of Pain (Gravitz, 2002).
040.-Psychogenic Pain (Whalley & Oakley, 2003).
VI.-HYPNOSIS FOR CANCER PATIENTS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
041.-Hypnosis and the Immune System: Implications for Cancer (Hall, 1983).
042.-Hypnotic Treatment of Adverse Reactions (Feldman & Salzberg, 1990).
043.-Psychoneuroimmunology, the Mind, Counseling and Cancer (Simonton, 1992).
044.-Effects of Psychological Treatment on Cancer Patients (Trijsburg et al, 1992)
045.-Hypnotherapeutic Treatment of a Cancer Patient (Lenk, 1992).
046.-Using Hypnosis With Cancer Patients: Six Case Studies (Kraft, 1993).
047.-Ericksonian Hypnotherapy for Cancer Pain Control (Weiss, 1993).
048.-The Use of Hypnosis in Helping Patients Control Symptoms (Genius, 1995).
049.-Cancer and Self-Hypnosis (Kelly & Kelly, 1995).
050.-Hypnosis in the Treatment of Cancer Pain (Peter, 1997).
VII.-HEALTH & ILLNESS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF HYPNOSIS
051.-Hypnosis in the Treatment of Obesity (Levitt, 1992)
052.-Pain and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation with Multiple Sclerosis (Dane, 1996).
053.-Hypnosis in Dentistry (Eli & Kleinhauz, 1997).
054.-Hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Vidakovic-Vukic, 1999).
055.-Hypnotherapy for Crohn's Disease (Abela, 2000).
056.-Hypnotic Suggestion with Asthma (Wagaman, 2001).
057.-Treatment of Chronic Fatigue with Self-Hypnosis (Hammond, 2002).
058.-The Effectiveness of Hypnosis with Surgical Patients (Montgomery et al., 2002).
059.-Complementary Psychotherapy In Dermatology: Hypnosis (Shenefelt, 2002).
060.-A Model of Hypnotic Intervention for Palliative Care (Marcus et al., 2003).
VIII.- HYPNOSIS FOR SLEEP DISORDERS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
061.-An Hypnotic Technique for Treating Insomnia (Bauer & McCanne, 1980).
062.-Hypnotic Relaxation and Insomnia (Stanton, 1989).
063.-The Use of Indirect Hypnotic Suggestions for Insomnia (Cochrane, 1989).
064.-Suggestions with Sleep Disturbance (Garver, 1990).
065.-Sleep-Terror Disorder in Children: The Role of Self-Hypnosis (Kohen et al., 1991)
066.-The Healing Power of Dreams (Mathieson, 1991).
067.-Treatment of Adults with Sleep Walking and Sleep Terror (Hurwitz et al., 1991).
068.-Chronic Insomnia: Outcome of Hypnotherapeutic Intervention (Becker, 1993).
069.-Brief Hypnotic Treatment of Repetitive Nightmares (Kingsbury, 1993).
070.-Insomnia and Hypnotic Ability (Perlstrom, 1998).
IX.-HYPNOSIS FOR SUBSTANCE ADDICTION: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
071.-Hypnosis Treatment for Smoking: An Evaluative Review (Holroyd, 1980).
072.-The Treatment of Alcohol and Drugs Addiction: An Overview (Waxman, 1985).
073.-Hypnotic Techniques in Drug Addiction Treatment (Collot, 1988).
074.-Use of Single Session Hypnosis for Smoking Cessation (Williams & Hall, 1988).
075.-Hypnosis and Alcoholism (Collot & Saina, 1992).
076.-The Use of Hypnosis in Cocaine Addiction (Page & Handley, 1993).
077.-Hypnotherapy for Substance Abuse (Beiglboeck & Feselmayer, 1994).
078.-Emotional Self-Regulation Therapy for Smoking Cessation (Bayot et al., 1997).
079.-Hypnotic Approaches to Smoking Cessation (Green & Lynn, 2000).
080.-Freedom From Smoking: Integrating Hypnotic Methods (Barber, 2001).
X.-HYPNOSIS & MENTAL HEALTH: MISCELLANEOUS
081.-The Use of Hypnotic Techniques with Psychotic Patients (Baker, 1978).
082.-Clinical Hypnosis and Sex Therapy (Araoz, 1982).
083.-Multiple Personality, Allied Disorders and Hypnosis (Bliss, 1986).
084.-The New Hypnosis in Family Therapy (Araoz & Negley-Parker, 1988).
085.-Hypnotic Strategies in Strategic Marital Therapy (Protinsky, 1988).
086.-Therapy of Vaginismus by Hypnotic Desensitization (Fuchs & Peretz, 1990)
087.-The Hypnotherapy of Irresistible Impulse Disorder (Schafer, 1991).
088.-Hypnotherapy with Severely Disturbed Patients (Murray-Jobsis, 1992).
089.-Psychotherapy of Schizophrenic and Borderline Patients (Zindel, 1992).
090.-Treatment Techniques of Multiple Personality Disorder Patients (Fraser, 1993).
091.-The Hypnotherapeutic Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (Lynn et al., 1993).
092.-Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Psychogenic Impotency (Crasilneck, 1993).
093.-Hypnotizability, Dissociation and Bulimia Nervosa (Covino et al., 1994).
094.-Ericksonian Approach to Male Impotence (Fuchs et al., 1995).
095.-Hypnosis in the Treatment of Sexual Trauma (Smith, 1995).
096.-Dissociative Identity Disorder: Perspectives and Controversies (Kluft, 1996).
097.-Hypnotherapeutic Management of Trichotillomania (Kohen, 1996).
098.-Hypnotic Strategies for Somatoform Disorders (Chaves, 1996).
099.-Hypnotherapy for AD/HD: Preliminary Evidence (Bartolo-Abela & Benton, 2002).
100.-Eating Disorders: The Role of Hypnosis (Mantle, 2003).
According to a study published in the 1996 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 79% of the interviewed physicians and 67% of residents had no prior training in Hypnotherapy and even fewer experienced Clinical Hypnosis. However, the ‘good news’ is that 85% of these professionals expressed an ‘interest’ in Clinical Hypnosis education. We are seeing a shift in health care from a total dependence on the classical or medical model, to a more holistic approach that embraces many alternative forms and strategies of healing, including Clinical Hypnosis and its potential applications in psychotherapy. This ‘shift’ is coming both from within the scientific community, and from the average people, with recent studies showing that as many as 40% to 50 % of individuals have tried alternative or complementary procedures and strategies of treatment. At the same time, and this is seen in the increasing volume of scientific reports dealing with Clinical Hypnosis and its applications in Mental Health, there is widening scientific acceptance of its therapeutic potential in many mental disorders. The American Medical Association (AMA), The American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the British Medical Association (BMA) have all recognized Clinical Hypnosis as a viable therapeutic tool.
Since its formal birth as a ‘science’, Hypnosis has shown a cyclical evolution with fluctuating levels of interest (and respect) from the scientific community. Hypnotherapy has evolved through a series of research, trial and error, and the application of numerous theories and practices that brought about conclusions. Today, there are many ‘unresolved’ issues, enigmas and questions concerning the real nature of the Hypnotic phenomena. The continuos and endless search for a unified theory framework has been controversial. Even with the impressive advances in the understanding of psychological and physiological mechanisms involved during Hypnotic interaction, theories and models of Hypnosis are remarkably numerous, divergent, and contradictories. Hypnosis knowledge is still evolving and growing as scientists learn and investigate the brain mechanisms more in-depth. It is obvious that we have not realized the full capacity of the human mind and its functioning. Although the manifestations and capabilities of Hypnosis have received increasing acknowledgment, the essence of its key mechanisms remains difficult to discover and define. Today, however, Hypnotherapy appears to be firmly implanted as a therapeutic tool, and its future is likely to witness its progressive maturation in its varied applications to the wide spectrum of psychotherapeutic practice.
While Hypnotherapy is not a cure-all for all psychological and non-psychological disorders its therapeutic use has shown dramatic and significant results. More and more mental health professionals now ‘embrace’ Hypnosis, as an effective clinical tool, for a wide variety of mental health problems. Clinical Hypnosis offers practitioners the ability to effect change for the better in some of their most difficult and defiant clients. Hypnosis is a therapeutic approach that is often underutilized, to the disadvantage of both clients and mental health professionals. In view of these considerations, it’s more than evident that Hypnosis presents fascinating opportunities for medical and psychotherapeutic research. Today we see applications of Clinical Hypnosis in virtually every health care field. It is being taught at an ever-growing number of universities and postgraduate training centers. Hypnosis and its uses in the practice of psychotherapy is rapidly growing and emerging as a highly effective therapeutic approach in solving the health problems of many individuals. Aside from these very tangible promises, the psychological and physiological mechanisms responsible for the vast array of hypnotic phenomena, once fully understood, can open key insights, new opportunities and future psychotherapeutic applications, not only into the most intimate connections of mind-body healing, but into the real nature of consciousness itself...
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Alden, P. & Heap, M. (1998). Hypnotic pain control: Some theoretical and practical issues. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46 (1), 62-76.
Alladin, A. (1992). Depression as a dissociative state. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 19 (4), 243-253.
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Araoz, D. & Negley-Parker, E. (1988).The new hypnosis in family therapy. New York: Brunner-Mazel.
Baker, E. (1978). The use of hypnotic techniques with psychotic patients. Asheville: Annual Meeting of the Society for Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis.
Barber, T. (1984). Changing unchangeable bodily processes by hypnotic suggestions: A new look at hypnosis, cognitions, imagining and the mind-body problem. Adv, 1-2, 76-88.
Barber, J. (2001). Freedom from smoking: Integrating hypnotic methods and rapid smoking to facilitate smoking cessation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49 (3), 257-266.
Bartolo-Abela, M. & Benton, T. (2002). Hypnotherapy for AD/HD: Preliminary evidence for its effectiveness. Chicago: 110th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.
Bauer, K. & McCanne, T. (1980). An hypnotic technique for treating insomnia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28 (1), 1-5.
Bayot, A.;Capafons, A. & Cardeqa, E. (1997). Emotional self-regulation therapy: A new and efficacious treatment for smoking. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40 (2), 146-156.
Becker, P. (1993). Chronic insomnia: Outcome of hypnotherapeutic intervention in six cases. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 98-105.
Beiglboeck, W. & Feselmayer, S. (1994). Systemic and hypnotherapeutic aspects of the psychotherapeutic treatment of substance addiction. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 21 (4), 108-113.
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Bliss, E. (1986). Multiple Personality, Allied Disorders and Hypnosis. Nueva York:Oxford University Press.
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Cochrane, G. (1989). The use of indirect hypnotic suggestions for insomnia arising from generalized anxiety: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 199-203.
Cohen, S. & Williamson, G. (1991). Stress and infectious disease in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 5-24.
Collot, G. (1988). Hypnotic techniques in drug addiction treatment. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 15 (2), 81-86.
Collot, G. & Saina, M. (1992). Hypnosis and alcoholism. In W. Bongartz: Hypnosis: 175 years after Mesmer - Recent developments in theory and application (pp 279-284). Konstanz: Universitaetsverlag.
Covino, N.; Jimerson, D.; Wolf, B.; Franko, D. & Frankel, F. (1994). Hypnotizability, dissociation and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103 (3), 455-459.
Crasilneck, H. (1993). The use of hypnotherapy in the treatment of psychogenic impotency: A long term study. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 20 (1), 21-30.
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Genius, M. (1995). The use of hypnosis in helping cancer patients control anxiety, pain, and emesis: A review of recent empirical studies. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37 (4), 316-325.
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Gravitz,M(2001). Percepual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44 (1), 51-55.
Gravitz, M. (2002). Hypnosis in the conquest of pain. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 29, 19-28.
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Gruzelier, J. (2002). A review of the impact of hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery and individual differences on aspects of immunity and health. Stress, 5, 147-163.
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Kingsbury, S. (1993). Brief hypnotic treatment of repetitive nightmares. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35 (3), 161-169.
Kirsch, I.;Montgomery, G. & Sapirstein, G. (1995). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63 (2), 214-220.
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Kohen, D.; Mahowald, M. & Rosen, Gerald M. (1991). Sleep-Terror Disorder in Children: The Role of Self-Hypnosis in Management. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 34 (4), 233-244.
Kohen, D. (1996). Hypnotherapeutic management of pediatric and adolescent trichotillomania. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 17 (5).
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Large, R. (1994). Hypnosis for chronic pain: A critical review. Hypnos: Swedish Journal of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic Medicine, 21 (4), 234-237.
Lenk, W. (1992). Hypnotherapeutic treatment of a cancer patient. In W. Bongartz: Hypnosis: 175 years after Mesmer - Recent developments in theory and application (pp. 367-374). Konstanz: Universitaetsverlag.
Levenson, J. & Bemis, C (1991). The role of psychological factors in cancer onset and progression. Psychosomatics, 32, 124-132.
Levitt, E. (1992). Hypnosis in the treatment of obesity. Washington: Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.
Lynch, D. (1999). Empowering the patient: Hypnosis in the management of cancer, surgical disease and chronic pain. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 42 (2), 122-130.
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